This Thesis proposal sample can be used in any Masters or Undergraduate degree in the field of computer science , information technology etc.
Title of the Dissertation:
Investigation of the usability isssues faced by disabled users while using the e-governance systems
The current study is looks at the various problems that are faced by the differentially challenged individuals in the process of the interaction with the online transaction systems such as the banks and the voting systems and such other e-Governance systems. The issues with interaction pertaining to the systems are an area that has been delved into the detail. The problems faced by the physically challenged individuals, such as the fast moving script and the Braille incomprehension have been looked into. Certain other areas that have been a part of the, significant trouble is that of the physical design and shape of the hardware as well as the size of the script. The GUI (Graphical User Interaction) models are also to be taken into the perspective in a proper manner. The TTY and the TTF methodology have bee discussed in the detail. Their conjunction of the Braille notes as well as the fact that the user would use a interface have been discussed. The use of the AIM messaging service is also a part of the total service that needs to be looked after. The OCR (Optical Character Recognition) and the DBS system have also been delved into in proper detail. The models of the interaction between the concerned groups have also been discussed in proper detail. The drawbacks of the current system along with the implementation methods have been the factor of great study here. The data points of the associated problems faced by the users such as the lesser screen space, data issues cognition issues and the other problems have also been seen in detail. The different types of the models for the under interaction have been studied in detail. These points that have the detailed points are the ones that include the task model, the presentation model, the navigation model, the application model and others. The research design aspects such as the UML, DiaModel and the Himalia have been discussed in the proper detail. It has also been stated that the design model being used should be the user centric design model. This would result in the interaction between the machine and the subject to be more interactive. It would also mitigate a lot of the inherent problems that are faced by the user in the interaction process. The real time examples have been discussed. The study also made an attempt to derive some common ground to arrive a satisfactory solution to the drawbacks of the current process.
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES
The study is aimed at the comprehension of the multiple factors that effect the interaction of the physically challenged individuals with the e- Governance systems. The basal aims and objectives of the study are explained here. The interaction of the physically challenged or specially gifted individuals with the e-Governance systems has been a great area of concern and study. The study aims at suggesting the necessary improvements or appendages in the current study to make the process better in terms of the approach and also the basic functionalities. The poignant points of the aims and the objectives are as follows-
• A basal study of the interaction between the physically challenged individuals and the e-Governance systems.
• A look at the classical features of the involved process that has an effect on the systems as well as the individuals in usage.
• Subjective view of the current models and the design processes.
• The application of the concepts that could result in the optimization and the enhanced usability in the existing systems.
• A road map to the process of the integration of the existing services with the new developments leading to a better process.
• The process of the design that could be followed by the individuals in practice.
• The use of the design elements in optimizing the comfort levels of the differentially able individuals.
• A study at the implementation methodologies of the interface that could be use. It also stresses at the need for the development of the appropriate UI (User Interaction).
• An objective description of the models of usage.
• A very prescriptive view of the mental models that have an effect on the ideas and the design processes.
The methodology used in the research is one of the most important drivers of the process. All the elements of the study of the process and the design elements must be in total unison for the process to be successful. The data collection and the model that is use for the analysis should be in perfect synchronization. Any degree of disconnect between then would result in a disjointed study result. The process that is used for the research is called as the deductive approach. The hypothesis for the study is framed. This is followed by the testing of the required elements under the consideration,. This would help us in arriving at the perfect conclusion after the study is concluded.
RESEARCH QUESTION AND THE ASSOCITED CRITERIA
The research question is one of the most vital areas of the complete research process. The research question should be contemplative and relevant. It should be very pointed in the scope of the discussion. If the research question is too wide in the associated scope and the context, then the study of these become absolutely difficult. If the research question is too narrow in the approach, it would result in the data losing all the required relevance of the study.
The hypothesis should be all inclusive in the contextual terms, but still be restrained in the approach. All the details should be mentioned in the study by taking the major parameters into the perspective. The hypothesis should be very closely in conjunction with the details of the data and the research. If all of these factors are taken into the consideration; than the hypothesis should also be framed in the most succinct and descriptive manner.
The design of the research paves the way for the successful completion of the data design and the complete associated process. This would mean that the parameters used in the building of the process should be maintained in the proper manner. If all the blocks of research are in total unison, it would mean that the data would result in the optimized results.
TYPES OF DATA AND THE SOURCE OF COLLECTION
The data can be primarily classified into the primary and the secondary data. The data that is collected for the research work is called as the primary data. The data that has already been p[resent in various books and journals as part of some other work or study is called as the secondary data. The primary data is tailor-made for the purpose of the research and takes many more coordinated points into the consideration.
The general methods of the collection of the primary data are the interviews, group discussions, questionnaires and the focus groups. These are the general methods used for the collection of the primary data.
The individuals with any kind of physical disability have always had problems in the interaction with the web world. The current study would look at the development of a system that could alleviate the problems faced by these users. There are a lot of issues that are faced by the users in the usage of the established norms of communication in the filed of the e-Governance systems. The current study would look at the aspects that have a direct impact on the usability issues as well as the factors that could be changes or modified in order to bring about an impending change in the system.
There have a lot of academic study on the problems that are faced by people with any kind of physical impairment. This results in the limited accessibility to all the services as well as the need for the modification of the services that are already in place. If we are to look at the ideas that govern the current system of the usage, there are a lot of areas that need redress. According to the authors (Mohd. et al., 2007), the area of the accessibility of these systems is a sector that needs special attention in the usage. Although the primal area of the lookout is the individuals with the impairments in vision or hearing, the field of study extends far beyond that aspect. According to the established journals, the impairments could be classified as the hearing, vision, cognitive, movement disorders and the disorders that deal with the seizures.
There has been literature that has looked at the online means of communication in the past. According to the author(Crochetiere, 2005), although the e-Governance systems currently used in Saudi Arabia is extremely efficient, there are certain areas that need to be looked into There has been an area that needs a lot of improvement. There has been no serious thrust in the area of a more inclusive set-up in the field of the education and the factors that govern it. The lacuna that has been observed seems to be a long standing problem that needs to be addressed. Research has shown certain common problem areas that have been a part of the problem. At the top most level of decision making, there has been a consensus on the development of the systems that are more inclusive, but it has been a failure when it comes to the implementation at the ground level functionalities. There is also an adjunct gap in the amount of data that is available in the education sector. There has been s spurt towards the hiring of the international consultants in improving the system, but the efforts have always found their way into small projects that seem ton have no future in themselves. There are also certain private organizations that have looked at the aspects of the development at many levels, but the efforts have always found not takers. Although the general attitude of the public has been towards a more inclusive online system, it has always lost out in the long run when it came to the implementation aspect. The National policy for the Special Education has looked at al this aspect of the implementation and the ways to make this work. The Ministry of Technology and Finance have always been at the logger heads in the implementation of the system that make up for the improvement as the cost has always been a major consideration. There are certain problems that seem to be highly generic in the occurrence. That would include the facts that are already in consonance. It has been seen that the individuals with smaller levels of visual impairment would need an increased amount of effort to view the data. This means that the current systems would need the integration of a mechanism that is inclusive in that approach. With the higher forms of the impairment, the individuals should look at the inclusion of the factors that are much more in detail. This means that the data should be translated into the Braille or converted into speech. Another factor is that the individuals with any mild sort of impairment may look at the increase of the volume to amplify the details. The current problems may also extend beyond the realm of the technological factors to the implementation of the machinery which seems to be more inclusive in the approach pattern.
There has been a long standing argument over the usage of the various resources and the materials by the individuals over a prolonged period of time. The implementation of the technology at the various levels that would include the elementary and the intermediate levels need to be studied in the greatest of detail. There are a lot of areas in which the concentration can be achieved so that the results could be obtained in the best possible way The developments ad the improvements could taken place in multiple areas. Conventional research has looked at the ways in which the implementation could be achieved (Maykut, 2004). The developments or the modification could take place in multiple areas that include the access to the telecommunication and the communication on a face to face basis. Thereby the researches on these areas have thrown up multiple recommendations that could make the passage of the information easier. The technology that has the maximum potentials or being use can be the technology of Telecommunications Access TTY or TTD or the aspect of the TT which could e used for the discrimination of the speech over the purpose of the use of the telephone. These can be also called as the telecommunications devices that are used for the deaf people and the Text Telephone Technology (Hair, 2007). This is not limited to the unsafe by the deaf individuals only but the usage could be extended to the lot of other individuals with varied amounts and degrees of disability. The TTY type of the communication mythology is preferred here and a lot of the individuals use this kind of technology.
During this kind of the conversation process, all the parties should have the usage of the TTY technology to make the process easier. Although the most preferred use in the field of the telecommunications and the face to face technology, it can also be used for other purposed for making the working a whole lot easier in the scope of the functioning. The users are always advised at the ways in which the process could be modified and made easier for all the individuals concerned. Thereby the usage is not limited to only one aspect; but to a greater spectrum of usage. The innovative methods can be used by the individuals that look at the creative use of all the available technology (Maykut, 2004). The communication during the process of the TTY, the messages must be alternated back and forth to make it work with an increased sense of functionality. The messages that are used in the process of the communication have to be looked back in the ton and fro manner. A communication assistant is responsible for the process of relaying the information typed the user using the TTY to the users that are not having the TTY. This means that the process of the data would make much easier when compute to the normal context of the transfer of the data. A detailed and the developed form of the service may be used in which the data would be transcribed in an automatic way between the involved individuals making the process easier in the approach (Kumar, 2005). Really services can be put up throughput the area that would help in the augmentation of the required services. The challenged or type specially gifted users having the necessary levels of the IP and the phone aces could ensure tat required level of the communication is maintained across all the centers. The computers could go on to use the general computers or the note makers in the form of Braille to ensure that the process works out in total detail. There could be four options exercised in making the process run faster; the messaging in the context of the text messaging and the AOL services that could be a part of the process, the services tat could be delayed by the help of the AIM, the NexTalk services that could be apart of the system and the interfaces that are used as a type of TTY.
This factor can be used for the communication by the use of the AIM. The cell phones cam be used as a viable form of communication that can be used buy all of the individuals. The individuals should go on to add the mobile number making the process work faster can be compared to the others (Saunders, 2007). This can be compared to the general buddy list wherein the user could include multiple stake holders in the process in totality.
According to the study and the elated authors, there is a group of five relay companies that would make the process work among the stakeholders (Hair, 2007). The name of the buddy has to be included in each of the cases AIM does not have the have the ability to make a real-time calculation to the other users or to make the necessary improvement or augmentations in the calls that are based in the other users. This inability to manipulate the real time call making process is one of the biggest drawbacks of the system.
The field of the online banking and the uses is another area at deserves a great deal of the attention. The users would need to look at the data and make the necessary changes or modifications. This is a program test is available as a free ware thought out the spectrum and the services would be used accordingly (Okolo, 2005). After the installation has been competed, there are four options that can be displayed as a part of the process. They are relay, talk, communicate, txt and the option of relay call. There would also be an inbuilt option of the online banking that could be use a part of the procedure and the required methodology. The VRS methodology can be used sort the communication with a user with the adequate amount of the services and the required data fields. This could be one of the best services in vogue as the calls are enquired for the process to function in a proper manner. NTS also provides the facility of assigning a toll free number to the selected buddy. This would ensure that the individuals would be allowed to make the proper decisions and also make the necessary data changes Once the call has been completed, the changes can be put into the positioned the decision made as to what kind of call it is by the use of the artificial intelligence(Saunders, 2007).
The requited fax can also be forwarded or sent to one of the proper addresses for the purpose of the deaf blind user. This also goes in mitigating the problems that are faced by the user in terms of the communication. But, this method has got its own share of the problems, as the text comes in the form of the faxes and in the particular font structure that may not be compatible to the Bailey structure (Kumar, 2005). The OCR (Optical Character Recognition) system has to be pointed in the required area for the purpose of the text messaging. The cost also increases astronomically for this usage that makes the process useless in most of the cases (Ryan, 2006). The fax that is apart of the incoming process cannot be guarantees by the reading of the Braille or any other process. The Adobe files can also be read in the proper manner to make the necessary changes for the user. This can also work in support of the web based user interface. The cost factor is the consideration that meds to be looked at in the proper detail in this case. This is also useful because the data needs to be properly maintained in case of any eventuality. Thereby, the cost aspiration is the essential hindrance in the implementation of the process. The Braille using individuals are not recommended to go through this as the hindrances are many and varied in this case. The individuals who are deaf and blind can use the technology for the adoption and the use of the group chats; which make the process easier in terms of the functional aspects. This would result in the elimination of all the barriers of the communication among the individuals in question. The online conversation process can be established as the necessary option that can be exercised in making the process work (Okolo, 2005). All the major service providers have the essential aspects of the group chat that could be used to this effect The ICQ programs could also be made available that can work across this problems and lead to the establishment of the contact with the another person that is having the service of the TTY. This feature can be included in the field of the general communication like that of the banking and the voting system. But, the allowance of the required technology would also mean that great amount of expense would be incurred in the process making it useless. This shall also allow the individu8al to establish contact with a person that does not have the support of the TTQ.
According to the literary lights, another enabler that can be used for the purpose of the communication is the human ware called as the DBC (Deaf Bind Communicator). This particular application is finding large number of uses in the current sceneries that include the inter-level symmetry between the individuals and the machine. The application has the two separate components that can be taken to a large number of spaces by the user. It has the Braille note mailing unit that is powered by the mpower or the QWERTY keyboard. This makes the application extremely easy. The specialty of the program lies in the fact that a special DBC program is installed. The other factor that comes into effect is the second portion that includes the aspects of the computer having a PD with a visual display. These parts are wirelessly connected. So, if a blind and a deaf person want to communicate with any of the individuals; they have to simple look work wit the DBC. The data from the required person shall be transferred by the help of the RFIP to the required visually aided person (Ryan, 2006). This helps in the easy communication and the flow of the data. The mini version of the JAWS screen reader is used as the method for the application process and can be used in all the required formats. The Pac mate uses the mini version of the data and makes the necessary transaction between the coordinates possible. In this way, all the required data could be exchanged between the individuals. PacMates used the Windows system that is safe and can be used by all the individuals. The user ca also virtually interacts with his agent or any other person. This makes the process of the interaction between the components extremely easy in the contextual terms. So, the study of the relevant literature has these all inclusive points that should be kept in mind while adding any changes in the current mechanism.