IT Related : PhD Proposal Sample

This is the IT related PhD proposal:


1.0 Abstract
2.0 Aims and Objectives
2.1 Research Methodolgy
3.0 Literature Review
4.0 References


The current study aims to understand and objectively comprehend the interaction between the mobile devices and other such services with the human beings. The devices such as mobile phones and other hand held services have become very important part of our lives. They play a great role in making the interaction between the users a whole lot easier and the flow of the communication a much more succinct concept. Thereby, the interaction between the different components is of primal importance in comprehending the parameters that may affect it. There are a lot of areas that have to be looked into while designing the user interface for these systems. The designing models have to be kept in mind so that the user can better comprehend and use the product. The design methodologies were looked into as a part of the process. The cognitive part of the design process looks at the models that come into the consideration. The user interface model is the most used model in this regard. The perceptual design and the mental process models were also studied. The mental models were seen such that the cognitive factors could be used to the best possible advantage. Therefore, the study looks at all the factors that affect the way that the mobile devices and other services interact with the humans. The models were studied in great depth to lend credibility to the paper.


The aims and objectives of the study are exemplified as follows. The basic study looks at the interaction between the devices such as the mobiles, i-phones and the humans. There are a number of factors that have to be taken into the consideration in terms of the usage of the mobiles and the iphone related services. The primary objectives of the study can be classified here as follows. They are given below.

• The study on the basic ways in which the interaction between the humans and the devices take place
• The classical mechanisms of the interaction and the ways in which the users can affect the procedures.
• The models of the interaction and the design processes
• The principal of the optimization of the compatibility and the features present in the interaction process
• The multiple resource usage and the ways in which they can result in the maximum use of the devices
• The perceptual design processes and the constructive mechanisms
• The various methodologies for the design of the interfaces and the way that the design affects the ultimate performance parameters
• The methods of the implementation of the interfaces and the surfaces
• The development of the descriptive and the predictive models which could be used to exemplify the model based behaviour
• The implementation of the various mental models that could result in the ultimate result being more pronounced.


The research methodology is one of the most important and crucial areas of the research. The success of the research and the underlying questions completely depend on the methodology followed. The objectives of the research, the ultimate parameters to be decided are all based on the methodology to be followed (Sapsford, 2007). In case of no synchronization between all of these, the research seems to suffer. The research method used here is the deductive approach. This approach tends to corroborate the thinking process of the researcher. The hypothesis during the formulation process is put to test and the various factors are determined. This approach also uses the primary and the secondary data. The primary data is collected in the form of questionnaires and interviews. The secondary data is taken from the already existing data sources and other forms. These are used in tandem to get the desired result. Depending upon the results of the study, the appropriate statistical methods shall be employed to get the end result.


The research question is a very vital parameter that defines the direction of the research. The questions and the criteria result in the proper arrangement of the data. If the research question or the criteria is too restrictive, than the study tends to get stifled. If the question is too broad in its scope, it may lead to the study diversifying into various directions. Thereby, it is greatly important that the context of the study as well as the research that the question is not too divergent (Kumar, 2005). Thus, the preciseness of the study has to maintain at all points of time. This also ensures that the direction of the research is kept appropriate and precise. Another point to be considered is that the synchronization between the objectives and the points to be achieved. If any of these is out of sync, then it may end up in the non achievement of the stipulated results.


The research hypothesis needs to be absolutely concise, precise and address the needs of the study (Kumar, 2005). The used hypothesis should be verifiable, related to the research and the practicability aspect is important. The deductive approach realizes the formation of the hypothesis. This should be in conjunction with the objectives and the other parameters. This part generally precedes the framing of the questionnaires, surveys, data collection, interviews or any other methodology to be followed.


The research design is a vital art of the total research process. Research design emulates the total process and ensures that the various stages of the research are in sync and streamlined. The qualitative and the quantitative techniques are the most often used methods for the design of the complete study. The two types of data that is used in the collation process are primary data and secondary data

Primary data refers to the data that is primarily collected for the purpose of the the study itself this data is collected by the researcher for the specific study. Secondary data consists of already existent literature in the related fields. The primary data is collected by the researcher specifically. So taking this into context, it can be stated that the primary data is customized for the specific design needs.

Primary data – The primary data is the data that is primarily collected by the researcher keeping the designated study in mind. Therefore, there are great chances of customization. This is especially useful because the needs of the research are different among the different cases. The basic ways of collecting primary data basically consists of the questionnaires, interviews. Surveys and face to face interactions. This data consists of the bulk materials that comprise the research. The foundation of a strong research stud is vastly dependant on the quality and the efficacy.

Secondary data- The secondary data is taken from journals articles. Books or any other resources that have explicitly studied about the given topic. A strong secondary research is absolutely vital fir the development of a robust argument. Secondary data gives a lot of importance to the proper usage and the application of resources. In a very subtle way, the secondary data gives direction and scope to the primary work.

The methods of data collection however impinge on one central idea and that is the superlative nature of the gathered data. The data is generally collected in a random manner. The randomness is a very important quality of the data. A greater degree of randomness brings about greater symmetry in the research results. The sample should be collected such that every item or data piece has a probability of selection that at any point of time is greater than one. The randomness of the sample also gives a better representation of the area or the population under study (Maykut & Morehouse, 1994). There are other reasons also that justify such a move. The data of the population is not concentrated only over sex and age. It finds itself in many other areas also. Thereby, protecting the randomness of the data is am assured way of conducting the search.


The primary data can be classified into various types. They are basically as follows

Interviews- The interview serves as a very important medium for the collection of the necessary data. The interviewer may ask the necessary questions in a manner that may elicit the necessary response. The problem with most other methods is that it is indirect and thus the required levels of affectivity are missing.

Questionnaires- The questionnaires serve as another important method of data colectio because of the variety it has to offer. The interviewer may prepare a set of cascading questions that would ultimately result n the proper data being found.

Group Discussions and common interviews- A much underrated but very effective means of comprehending the needs of any study is the methodology of group discussion. Sometimes, the behaviour in a group may be markedly different from singular behaviour. This characteristic can be used to frame questions that reveal the proper nature of the sample group.


There is a widespread interest in the area of the interaction between the different devices that we use on a day o day basis of our lives. The scientific literature is agog with instances wherein the usages of the various devices have been discussed in detail. It is noteworthy to understand and appreciate that the devices play a great role in our day to day lives. Our days are seldom complete without the ring of the mobile, i-phone or other such devices. Thus, keeping these factors into light; it becomes even more important to study the relativistic effects of the same on the human lives.

A great number of the authors have tried to decipher the dynamics of the interaction between the different components that include the levels of comprehension among the levels of the devices and the human beings. The general area that is extremely important and has attained a large amount of value in the recent years is the field of the human and mobile interaction. The field is the amalgamation of the various fields such as the human behaviour, ergonomics, lateral sciences and interaction dynamics. The basal level of the interaction between the users and the devices (as for example iphone or mobile) takes place on the common platform called as the UI (User Interface). The user interface may be the large number of the available applications, the touch screen, the applications or the sliders. The satisfaction of the UI (User Interface) is very important for ensuring that the products have got the repeat value and that they find use among the consumers.

The field of the study is very complex given the fact that it involves studying both the human interaction as well as devices in question. From the perspective of the devices the programming language, the GUI (Graphic user interface), the programming language, the ease of the use and the development environments gain relevance. From the perspective of the users, the important factors that need to be kept in mind are social factors, the cognitive sciences, the linguistics, engineering design and the interaction methods are important. Due to the multidisciplinary nature of thus area, large number and cross section of the people are involved in ensuring the adequate amounts of insight in it. Due to the multi faceted nature of the interaction, it is also called as the MMI (Man machine interaction or man mobile interaction).
Gary Marsden (2006) has spoken a great deal about the varying levels of the intricacies that are involved in the complete process of the interaction between the user and the system. He has observed that the process is holistic in nature that requires the interaction among very different levels of the components of the process. He also further states the other most important factor that contributes to the success or failure of the product is the level of the congruence that the product enjoys with the people. Authors have commented that the ease in the user and the product interface should e evident as it aggravates the usage of the product as a whole. Authors like Matt Jones (2006) have written in detail about the various goals that should be achieved by the device on terms of the efficiency and the viability of the use. There are certain basic parameters that the device should try to achieve so that the concerns in the parameter can be matched and met. He has categorically stated that one of the main goals of the system should be to cut down on the bridge between the cognitive learning abilities of the user and the mobile interface that the device possesses. This will in turn increase the level of the congruence among the users in terms of all the parameters. The primary problem areas faced by most of the user are the graphic user interface and the web interface in the devices. If the user senses considerable amount of problems in any of them, it would result in a lot of problems for them.
A lot of the authors have spoken about the development of the newer technologies as well as the development of newer theories to tackle the rise of any impending problem that may arise out of the usage process. There is the impending need to develop newer paradigms of the thought process in this regard to counteract any problems that may be faced because of this. Although. The field of study primarily depends on the humans; it is quite different from the field of ergonomics as it is not preoccupied or predefined with only the human interaction of the business thought process. There is also a lesser amount of orientation on the work based tasks and the emphasis is more on the reproduction of the appropriate technology. According to Helen Sharp(2007), the area that derives a lot out of this primary thought process is the field of PIM( Primary Information Management). There are other prominent authors that speak of even more amount of inspiration, such as Yvonne Rogers (2008), who spoke of the need to look at the systems methodology and do the design process. MCSW (Machine Supported Structural Work) is another area that is gaining a lot of prominence in terms of the usage and the other adjoining parameters associated with it. The combination of all these factors makes the total process very important. The principles of the HIM (Human Interaction Management) extend greatly to make the whole process a great bit easier. The paradigms of the thought process go a long way in the shaping of the thought process and the consecutive execution of the project (Robert Beale, 2003). In his seminal work that dealt with the impact that the devices that have a great effect on the daily lives, he has made the points of coincidence absolutely clear. Alan Dix (2002) has put a lot of thought in shaping the paradigms and the parameters that would ultimately result in the proper objectives to be met. Making the designing process easier would also result in the thought process to become much more in sync with the general thought process and much easier in the contextual terms.
The author( Jakob Nielsen, 1998)has exclusively mentioned about keeping the design principles simples so that the optimum utilization can be achieved out of the same. The design should be such that the users can easily interact with all the required surfaces and make the process a whole lot easier. The author had earmarked the following points to be kept in mind for the cumulative design of the interface. The primary and the most important focus should be on the development of the appropriate platform for all the users. It should take into consideration the viability of the interface process and the way that the user can use them to the advantage. It is also in advantage of the user that the way that the tasks are defined be corroborated in the proper manner. The user interface needs to be totally uncomplicated to achieve all these key criterion and the point of the interest.
The other areas that the author tries to concentrate here is the measurement in terms of the empirical processes. The way that the data should be used should be quantified nicely. All the factors should be kept in mind to understand the relativistic impacts of the process on the way that the process is played out. The interface should be very user friendly and make optimum use of the all the processes of the users. The design process should be very iterative by nature as the process should not be complicated and use the maximum from the users. Therefore, the final design should be arrived at by due consideration and keeping in mind the appropriate parameters. So, the design must be checked thoroughly before the final look is finalized.

The design methodology that is used in the design of any of the processes is very important for the achievement of the proper parameters (Ben Shneiderman, 2004). The interaction between any of the users and the technology that drives it should be extremely succinct in the approach. The device should be congruent in terms of the needs of the user. The earliest of the design interfaces looked into the cognitive studies in utmost detail to find out the quantifiable parameters that ran the process. However, the latter practitioners ensured that the field of study is increased from only concentrating on the cognitive view. There were the concepts of memory which were applied to look at the ways in which the interaction could take place. Thereby, the whole ideas of intuitive modeling and thought process redesign were brought into the picture. They looked to suffice the most important parameters of looking at the field of the pre designed thought to seek out the appropriate results. They looked at the ways in which visibly distinct systems such as the user and the machines interact.

Authors like (Norman, 2006) have mentioned about the newest forms of design that could be used to sort out the problems that are present. The design methodologies that have recently come into the view are user centered design. The user centered design looks into the various ideas that make the system work in a better manner than others. The design is processed and made in such a way as to ensure that the applicability can be concentrated on the maximum number of the users. The user design processes look at the ethnographic modes of the studying to ensure that the most of the criteria are met. The design process is in many ways almost identical to the participatory design processes that ensure that the data and the other major forms of the process are looked in from the point of view of the user. The user however does not get a final say on the ultimate design that emerges out of the system in question. There are primarily seven concerns that need to be taken into account so that the proper visualization of the data process can take place. The features are basically overall consistency in the process, look at the affordability, structure and the mechanism of the feedback.

The display designs are yet another are that needs a lot of support and polish in terms of the overall ways in which the process can be shaped up. The basal task of the display mechanism would be to simplify the process and make it a whole lot easier for the user to use. The user must be in a state to access and operate all the information needed for the proper usage of the data and the way in which the interface works. Thereby, the creation of an effective display design would help in the complete process becoming much easier to accomplish. A reduction in the number of viable errors along with the change in the overall functioning of the system is a few of the points that could be achieved out of the process. There are certain circumstances that may not be applicable to the complete process as it may be contrary to the popular means of the functioning. According to the author (Baeker & Grudin, 2007), the design process can be perceptual to make optimum use of the criteria in question. The interface may be tailor made to ensure that the complete areas of the design are taken into the proper consideration before checking on the viability of the system. The sensory variables should be in a state of optimization for the proper results to be found out. Only one parameter such as the colour or the display should not decide the process flow, but the complete combination should be used in conjunction to decipher and use the perfect process. The processing mechanism that is followed should be a top down process rather than taking in only one of the parameters. Redundancy issues should be kept under the check to ensure that the proper combination is followed in the greatest detail. There are concerns with the aspects of the gain in the redundancy .If the signals are completely similar than they would be understood in a much better manner.
There are other authors such as (Sears & Jacko, 2007) who have researched into the various models such as the mental model principles. These models look at the viability of the models in terms of the mental convergence. There is a principle that talks about the maintenance in terms of the pictures that are of value to the end user. There is another principle that talks abut the symmetry of the moving parts. The various parts of the screen or the I-phone should be moving in a symmetric manner to ensure that the end user does not feel confused by the movement. Thus, all the factors have been tried to be incorporated to comprehend the aspects of the interaction of the users and the devices.


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